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410 1.4006 Stainless Steel







Alloy 410 is a martensitic stainless steel with high mechanical properties and is ferromagnetic in the annealed or hardened condition. 410 contains the minimum amount of chromium to impart stainless steel properties. 410 resists oxidation and scaling up to 1200 degF. Hardness is one of 410's best features; It resists abrasion and wear better than most 300 series stainless steel. Grade 410 is often supplied in the hardened, but still machinable condition, for applications where high strength and moderate heat and corrosion resistance are required

Alloy 410 is the basic, general purpose, hardenable martensitic stainless steel. It is used for highly stressed parts with good corrosion resistance and strength. Alloy 410 resists corrosion in mild atmospheres, steam, and many mild chemical environments. The alloy can be heat treated to obtain high strength with good ductility.This alloy is used where strength, hardness, and/or wear resistance must be combined with corrosion resistance.

Alloy 410 is a hardenable, straight-chromium stainless steel which combines the superior wear resistance of high carbon alloys with the excellent corrosion resistance of chromium stainless steel. Oil quenching this alloy from temperatures between 1800°F to 1950°F (982-1066°C) produces the highest strength and/or wear resistance as well as corrosion resistance. A range of as-quenched hardnesses is achieved by varying the carbon level from .15% maximum in Alloy 410.

Martensitic stainless steel are optimised for high hardness, and other properties are to some degree compromised. Fabrication must be by methods that allow for poor weldability and usually the need for a final heat treatment. Corrosion resistance of the martensitic is lower than that of the common austenitic grades, and their useful operating temperature range is limited by their loss of ductility at sub-zero temperatures and loss strength by over-tempering at elevated temperatures.



Applications
Chemical Analysis
Corrosion Resistance
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Fabricating Properties
Heat Treatment




Type Seamless & Welded Pipe Butt Weld Fittings Flanges & Pressure Fittings
Sizes 1/4" thru 16" 1/2" thru 12" All descriptions
Schedules Sch 10, 40, 80, 160, & XXH Sch 10, 40, 80, 160, & XXH

ASTM Standards
Bar Butt Weld Fittings Forgings Pipe, Welded & Seamless Plate
A276, A479 A815 A182 A268 A240

Minimum Physical Properties
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elongation Hardness
75 KSI Min. 30 KSI Min. 20% Min. RB 95 Max.

Chemical Composition (wt%)
C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Fe
0.15 Max. 1.00 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.03 Max. 0.75 Max. 0.50 Max. 11.5 - 13.5 Balance

Mechanical Properties

Typical mechanical properties for grade 410 stainless steels are given in table 5.

Table 5.  Mechanical properties of 410 grade stainless steel

Tempering Temperature (°C)

Tensile Strength (MPa)

Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa)

Elongation (% in 50mm)

Hardness Brinell (HB)

Impact Charpy V (J)

Annealed *

480 min

275 min

16 min

-

-

204

1310

1000

16

388

30

316

1240

960

14

325

36

427

1405

950

16

401

#

538

985

730

16

321

#

593

870

675

20

255

39

650

755

575

23

225

80

* Annealed properties are specified for Condition A of ASTM A276, for cold finished bar.

# Due to associated low impact resistance this steel should not be tempered in the range 425-600°C


Physical Properties

Typical physical properties for annealed grade 410 stainless steels are given in table 6.
Table 6  Physical properties of 410 grade stainless steel in the annealed condition

Grade

Density (kg/m3)

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
(mm/m/°C)

Thermal Conductivity
(W/m.K)

Specific Heat 0-100°C
(J/kg.K)

Electrical Resistivity (nW.m)

0-100°C

0-315°C

0-538°C

at 100°C

at 500°C

410

7750

200

9.9

11.4

11.6

24.9

28.7

460

570


Grade Specificati on Comparison

Approximate grade comparisons for 410 stainless steel are given in table 7.

Table 7. Grade specifications for 410 grade stainless steel

Grade

UNS No

Old British

Euronorm

Swedish SS

Japanese JIS

BS

En

No

Name

410

S41000

410S21

56A

1.4006

X12Cr13

2302

SUS 410


These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted.

Possible Alternative Grades

Possible alternative grades to grade 410 stainless steels are given in table 8.

Table 8. Possible alternative grades to 410 grade stainless steel
Grade

Why it might be chosen instead of 410

416

High machinability is required, and the lower corrosion resistance of 416 is acceptable.

420

A higher hardened strength or hardness than can be obtained from 410 is needed.

440C

A higher hardened strength or hardness than can be obtained even from 420 is needed.


Corrosion Resistance

410 resists dry atmosphere, fresh water, mild alkalies and acids, food, steam and hot gases. Must be hardened for maximum heat and corrosion resistance. Performance is best with a smooth surface finish. Less corrosion resistant than the austenitic grades and also less than 17% chromium ferritic alloys such as Grade 430.

Heat Resistance

Good resistance to scaling up to approximately 650°C, but generally not recommended for use in temperatures between 400 and 580°C, because of the reduction in mechanical properties.

Heat Treatment

Annealing

Full anneal - 815-900°C, slow furnace cool to 600°C and then air cool.

Process Anneal - 650-760°C and air cool.

Hardening

Heat to 925-1010°C, followed by quenching in oil or air. Oil quenching is necessary for heavy sections. Temper, generally within the range 200-400°C, to obtain a wide variety of hardness values and mechanical properties as indicated in the accompanying table.

The tempering range 400-580°C should generally be avoided.

Welding

Readily welded by all standard methods, but a pre-heat of 150-260°C and post-weld annealing treatment is required to reduce the possibility of cracking. Use Grade 410 welding rod if post hardening and tempering is involved. If parts are to be used in the "as welded" condition, a ductile joint can be achieved by using Grade 309 filler rod.

AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 410 with Grade 309 rods or electrodes.

Machining

In the annealed or highly tempered conditions grade 410 is relatively easily machined, but if hardened to above 30HRC machining becomes more difficult. Free machining grade 416 is a very readily machined alternative.



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